Anarchism is generally defined as the political philosophy which holds the state to be undesirable, unnecessary, and harmful,
The following sources cite anarchism as a political philosophy:
Slevin, Carl. "Anarchism. " The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics . Ed. Iain McLean and Alistair McMillan. Oxford University Press, 2003. or, alternatively, as opposing authority or hierarchical organization in the conduct of human relations. "The IAF - IFA fights for : the abolition of all forms of authority whether economical, political, social, religious, cultural or sexual. " "Anarchism, then, really stands for the liberation of the human mind from the dominion of religion; the liberation of the human body from the dominion of property; liberation from the shackles and restraint of government. Anarchism stands for a social order based on the free grouping of individuals for the purpose of producing real social wealth; an order that will guarantee to every human being free access to the earth and full enjoyment of the necessities of life, according to individual desires, tastes, and inclinations. " Emma Goldman . "What it Really Stands for Anarchy " in Anarchism and Other Essays . Individualist anarchist Benjamin Tucker defined anarchism as opposition to authority as follows "They found that they must turn either to the right or to the left, — follow either the path of Authority or the path of Liberty. Marx went one way; Warren and Proudhon the other. Thus were born State Socialism and Anarchism...Authority, takes many shapes, but, broadly speaking, her enemies divide themselves into three classes: first, those who abhor her both as a means and as an end of progress, opposing her openly, avowedly, sincerely, consistently, universally; second, those who profess to believe in her as a means of progress, but who accept her only so far as they think she will subserve their own selfish interests, denying her and her blessings to the rest of the world; third, those who distrust her as a means of progress, believing in her only as an end to be obtained by first trampling upon, violating, and outraging her. These three phases of opposition to Liberty are met in almost every sphere of thought and human activity. Good representatives of the first are seen in the Catholic Church and the Russian autocracy; of the second, in the Protestant Church and the Manchester school of politics and political economy; of the third, in the atheism of Gambetta and the socialism of Karl Marx. " Benjamin Tucker . Anarchist historian George Woodcock report of Mikhail Bakunin 's anti-authoritarianism and shows opposition to both state and non-state forms of authority as follows: "All anarchists deny authority; many of them fight against it. " (pg. 9)...Bakunin did not convert the League 's central committee to his full program, but he did persuade them to accept a remarkably radical recommendation to the Berne Congress of September 1868, demanding economic equality and implicitly attacking authority in both Church and State. " Proponents of anarchism, known as "anarchists ", advocate stateless societies based on non- hierarchical "That is why Anarchy, when it works to destroy authority in all its aspects, when it demands the abrogation of laws and the abolition of the mechanism that serves to impose them, when it refuses all hierarchical organization and preaches free agreement — at the same time strives to maintain and enlarge the precious kernel of social customs without which no human or animal society can exist. " Peter Kropotkin . "anarchists are opposed to irrational (e.g., illegitimate) authority, in other words, hierarchy — hierarchy being the institutionalisation of authority within a society. " voluntary association s. "ANARCHISM, a social philosophy that rejects authoritarian government and maintains that voluntary institutions are best suited to express man’s natural social tendencies. " George Woodcock. "Anarchism " at The Encyclopedia of Philosophy "In a society developed on these lines, the voluntary associations which already now begin to cover all the fields of human activity would take a still greater extension so as to substitute themselves for the state in all its functions. "
There are many types and traditions of anarchism, not all of which are mutually exclusive. Anarchist schools of thought can differ fundamentally, supporting anything from extreme individualism to complete collectivism. Strains of anarchism have been divided into the categories of social and individualist anarchism or similar dual classifications. Ostergaard, Geoffrey . "Anarchism ". The Blackwell Dictionary of Modern Social Thought . Blackwell Publishing. p. 14. Anarchism is often considered a radical left-wing ideology, and much of anarchist economics and anarchist legal philosophy reflect anti-statist interpretations of communism , collectivism , syndicalism or participatory economics . However, anarchism has always included an individualist strain , egoist strain , and free market strain . Narveson, Jan (2002). . "To see this, of course, we must expound the moral outlook underlying anarchism. To do this we must first make an important distinction between two general options in anarchist theory ... The two are what we may call, respectively, the socialist versus the free-market, or capitalist, versions. " Tormey, Simon, Anti-Capitalism, A Beginner 's Guide, Oneworld Publications, 2004, pp. 118–119. Some individualist anarchists are also socialist s or communist s "This stance puts him squarely in the libertarian socialist tradition and, unsurprisingly, (Benjamin) Tucker referred to himself many times as a socialist and considered his philosophy "Anarchistic socialism. " " An Anarchist FAQ by Various Authors "Because revolution is the fire of our will and a need of our solitary minds; it is an obligation of the libertarian aristocracy. To create new ethical values. To create new aesthetic values. To communalize material wealth. To individualize spiritual wealth. " while some anarcho-communists are also individualists. Post-left anarcho-communist Bob Black after analysing insurrectionary anarcho-communist Luigi Galleani 's view on anarcho-communism went as far as saying that "communism is the final fulfillment of individualism .... The apparent contradiction between individualism and communism rests on a misunderstanding of both.... Subjectivity is also objective: the individual really is subjective. It is nonsense to speak of 'emphatically prioritizing the social over the individual '.... You may as well speak of prioritizing the chicken over the egg. Anarchy is a 'method of individualization '. It aims to combine the greatest individual development with the greatest communal unity. " "Modern Communists are more individualistic than Stirner. To them, not merely religion, morality, family and State are spooks, but property also is no more than a spook, in whose name the individual is enslaved - and how enslaved !...Communism thus creates a basis for the liberty and Eigenheit of the individual. I am a Communist because I am an Individualist. Fully as heartily the Communists concur with Stirner when he puts the word take in place of demand - that leads to the dissolution of property, to expropriation. Individualism and Communism go hand in hand. "
Anarchism as a mass social movement has regularly endured fluctuations in popularity. The central tendency of anarchism as a social movement has been represented by anarcho-communism and anarcho-syndicalism , with individualist anarchism being primarily a literary phenomenon Skirda, Alexandre . Facing the Enemy: A History of Anarchist Organization from Proudhon to May 1968 . AK Press, 2002, p. 191. which nevertheless did have an impact on the bigger currents Catalan historian Xavier Diez reports that the Spanish individualist anarchist press was widely read by members of anarcho-communist groups and by members of the anarcho-syndicalist trade union CNT . There were also the cases of prominent individualist anarchists such as Federico Urales and Miguel Gimenez Igualada who were members of the CNT and J. Elizalde who was a founding member and first secretary of the Iberian Anarchist Federation . Xavier Diez. El anarquismo individualista en España: 1923-1938. ISBN 978-84-96044-87-6 and individualists have also participated in large anarchist organizations. Within the synthesist anarchist organization, the Fédération Anarchiste , there existed an individualist anarchist tendency alongside anarcho-communist and anarchosyndicalist currents. Individualist anarchists participating inside the Fédération Anarchiste included Charles-Auguste Bontemps , Georges Vincey and André Arru. In Italy in 1945, during the Founding Congress of the Italian Anarchist Federation , there was a group of individualist anarchists led by Cesare Zaccaria who was an important anarchist of the time. Most anarchists oppose all forms of aggression , supporting self-defense or non-violence ( anarcho-pacifism ), George Woodcock . Anarchism: A History of Libertarian Ideas and Movements (1962) while others have supported the use of some coercive measures, including violent revolution and propaganda of the deed , on the path to an anarchist society. Fowler, R.B. "The Anarchist Tradition of Political Thought. " The Western Political Quarterly , Vol. 25, No. 4. (December, 1972), pp. 743–744.
Goodway, David. Anarchists Seed Beneath the Snow. Liverpool Press. 2006, p. 4
MacDonald, Dwight &Wreszin, Michael. Interviews with Dwight Macdonald . University Press of Mississippi, 2003. p. 82
Bufe, Charles. The Heretic 's Handbook of Quotations. See Sharp Press, 1992. p. iv
Gay, Kathlyn. Encyclopedia of Political Anarchy. ABC-CLIO /University of Michigan, 2006, p. 126
Woodcock, George . Anarchism: A History of Libertarian Ideas and Movements. Broadview Press, 2004. (Uses the terms interchangeably, such as on page 10)
Skirda, Alexandre . Facing the Enemy: A History of Anarchist Organization from Proudhon to May 1968. AK Press 2002. p. 183.
Fernandez, Frank. Cuban Anarchism. The History of a Movement. See Sharp Press, 2001, page 9. Accordingly, "libertarian socialism "is sometimes used as a synonym for socialist anarchism , Noam Chomsky, Carlos Peregrín Otero. Language and Politics. AK Press, 2004, p. 739. to distinguish it from "individualist libertarianism "(individualist anarchism). On the other hand, some use "libertarianism "to refer to individualistic free-market philosophy only, referring to free-market anarchism as "libertarian anarchism ". Morris, Christopher. 1992. An Essay on the Modern State . Cambridge University Press. p. 61. (Using "libertarian anarchism " synonymously with "individualist anarchism " when referring to individualist anarchism that supports a market society ).
Etymology and terminology less
The term derives from the ancient Greek ??a????, anarchos , meaning "without rulers ", . Merriam-Webster online. Liddell, Henry George , & Scott, Robert , " A Greek-English Lexicon " . from the prefix ??- ( an- , "without ") + ????? ( arkhos , "leader ", from ???? arkhe , "authority, sovereignty, realm, magistracy ") + -?sµ?? ( -ismos , from the suffix -??e??, -izein "-izing "). There is some ambiguity with the use of the terms "libertarianism " and "libertarian " in writings about anarchism. Since the 1890s from France, the term "libertarianism " has often been used as a synonym for anarchism "At the end of the century in France, Sebastien Faure took up a word originated in 1858 by one Joseph Dejacque to make it the title of a journal, Le Libertaire. Today the terms “anarchist” and “libertarian” have become interchangeable. " and was used almost exclusively in this sense until the 1950s in the United States; Russell, Dean. , Foundation for Economic Education , "Ideas on Liberty, " May, 1955. its use as a synonym is still common outside the United States.
- Ward, Colin. Anarchism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press 2004 p. 62
The earliest anarchist themes can be found in the 6th century BC, among the works of Taoist philosopher Laozi , Peter Kropotkin, , Encyclopædia Britannica 1910. and in later centuries by Zhuangzi and Bao Jingyan. Zhuangzi 's philosophy has been described by various sources as anarchist "The priority of dao over tiannature:sky underwrites the themes of dependency and relativism that pervade the Zhuangzi and ultimately the skepticism, the open-minded toleration and the political anarchism (or disinterest in political activity or involvement). " "Doing nothing wu wei is the famous Daoist concept for natural action, action in accord with Dao, action in which we freely follow our own way and allow other beings to do likewise. Zhuangzi, the great anarchic Daoist sage, compared it to “riding on the wind.” "Zhuangzi helps us discover an anarchistic epistemology and sensibility. He describes a state in which “you are open to everything you see and hear, and allow this to act through you.” 45 Part of wuwei, doing without doing, is “knowing without knowing,” knowing as being open to the things known, rather than conquering and possessing the objects of knowledge. This means not imposing our prejudices (whether our own personal ones, our culture 's, or those built into the human mind) on the Ten Thousand Things. " Zhuangzi, was referred to by Murray Rothbard as "the first anarchist in the history of human thought ". " "The next group of interpreters have also become incorporated into the extant version of the text. They are the school of anarchistically inclined philosophers, that Graham identifies as a “Primitivist” and a school of “Yangists,” chapters 8 to 11, and 28 to 31. These thinkers appear to have been profoundly influenced by the Laozi, and also by the thought of the first and last of the Inner Chapters: “Wandering Beyond,” and “Responding to Emperors and Kings.” There are also possible signs of influence from Yang Zhu, whose concern was to protect and cultivate one’s inner life-source. These chapters combine the anarchistic ideals of a simple life close to nature that can be found in the Laozi with the practices that lead to the cultivation and nurturing of life. " Zhuangzi wrote, "A petty thief is put in jail. A great becomes a ruler of a Nation. " Diogenes of Sinope and the Cynic s, their contemporary Zeno of Citium , the founder of Stoicism , also introduced similar topics. Jesus is sometimes considered the first anarchist in the Christian anarchist tradition. Georges Lechartier wrote that "The true founder of anarchy was Jesus Christ and ... the first anarchist society was that of the apostles. " Cited in George Woodcock, Anarchism: A History of Libertarian Ideas and Movements (Cleveland: Meridian Books, 1962), p. 38. Such a distinction reverberates subversive religious conceptions like the aforementioned seemingly anarchistic Taoist teachings and that of other anti-authoritarian religious traditions creating a complex relationship regarding the question as to whether or not anarchism and religion are compatible . This is exemplified when the glorification of the state is viewed as a form of sinful idolatry .
The radical Protestant Christian Gerrard Winstanley and his group the Diggers are cited by various authors as proposing anarchist social measures in the 17th century in England. "Anarchists have regarded the secular revolt of the Diggers, or True Levellers, in seventeenth-century England led by Gerrard Winstanley as a source of pride. Winstanley, deeming that property is corrupting, opposed clericalism, political power and privilege. It is economic inequality, he believed, that produces crime and misery. He championed a primitive communalism based on the pure teachings of God as comprehended through reason. " "It was in these conditions of class struggle that, among a whole cluster of radical groups such as the Fifth Monarchy Men, the Levellers and the Ranters, there emerged perhaps the first real proto-anarchists, the Diggers, who like the classical 19th century anarchists identified political and economic power and who believed that a social, rather than political revolution was necessary for the establishment of justice. Gerrard Winstanley, the Diggers 'leader, made an identification with the word of God and the principle of reason, an equivalent philosophy to that found in Tolstoy 's The Kingdom of God is Within You . " Marlow. "Anarchism and Christianity " "Although Proudhon was the first writer to call himself an anarchist, at least two predecessors outlined systems that contain all the basic elements of anarchism. The first was Gerrard Winstanley (1609-c. 1660), a linen draper who led the small movement of the Diggers during the Commonwealth. Winstanley and his followers protested in the name of a radical Christianity against the economic distress that followed the Civil War and against the inequality that the grandees of the New Model Army seemed intent on preserving. In 1649-1650 the Diggers squatted on stretches of common land in southern England and attempted to set up communities based on work on the land and the sharing of goods. " George Woodcock Anarchism The Encyclopedia of Philosophy The term "anarchist " first entered the English language in 1642, during the English Civil War , as a term of abuse , used by Royalists against their Roundhead opponents. By the time of the French Revolution some, such as the Enragés , began to use the term positively, Sheehan, Sean. Anarchism , London: Reaktion Books Ltd., 2004. p. 85. in opposition to Jacobin centralisation of power, seeing "revolutionary government " as oxymoron ic. By the turn of the 19th century, the English word "anarchism " had lost its initial negative connotation.
Modern anarchism sprang from the secular or religious thought of the Enlightenment , particularly Jean-Jacques Rousseau 's arguments for the moral centrality of freedom. "Anarchism ", Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2006 (UK version). From this climate William Godwin developed what many consider the first expression of modern anarchist thought . Godwin was, according to Peter Kropotkin , "the first to formulate the political and economical conceptions of anarchism, even though he did not give that name to the ideas developed in his work ", while Godwin attached his anarchist ideas to an early Edmund Burke . Godwin himself attributed the first anarchist writing to Edmund Burke 's A Vindication of Natural Society . "Most of the above arguments may be found much more at large in Burke 's Vindication of Natural Society ; a treatise in which the evils of the existing political institutions are displayed with incomparable force of reasoning and lustre of eloquence... " – footnote, Ch. 2 Political Justice by William Godwin. Benjamin Tucker instead credits Josiah Warren , an American who promoted stateless and voluntary communities where all goods and services were private , with being "the first man to expound and formulate the doctrine now known as Anarchism. " Liberty XIV (December, 1900:1). The first to describe himself as an anarchist was Pierre-Joseph Proudhon , , BBC Radio 4 program, In Our Time , Thursday 7 December 2006. Hosted by Melvyn Bragg of the BBC, with John Keane, Professor of Politics at University of Westminster , Ruth Kinna , Senior Lecturer in Politics at Loughborough University , and Peter Marshall , philosopher and historian. a French philosopher and politician, which led some to call him the founder of modern anarchist theory. Daniel Guerin, Anarchism: From Theory to Practice (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1970).
The anarcho-communist Joseph Déjacque was the first person to describe himself as " libertarian ". Joseph Déjacque, (in French ) Unlike Proudhon , he argued that, "it is not the product of his or her labor that the worker has a right to, but to the satisfaction of his or her needs, whatever may be their nature. " "l 'Echange ", article in Le Libertaire no 6, 21 September 1858, New York.
First International and the Paris Commune less
In Europe, harsh reaction followed the revolutions of 1848 , during which ten countries had experienced brief or long-term social upheaval as groups carried out nationalist uprisings. After most of these attempts at systematic change ended in failure, conservative elements took advantage of the divided groups of socialists, anarchists, liberals, and nationalists, to prevent further revolt. In 1864 the International Workingmen 's Association (sometimes called the "First International ") united diverse revolutionary currents including French followers of Proudhon , Blanquists , Philadelphes , English trade unionists, socialists and social democrats .
Due to its links to active workers 'movements, the International became a significant organization. Karl Marx became a leading figure in the International and a member of its General Council. Proudhon 's followers, the mutualists , opposed Marx 's state socialism , advocating political abstentionism and small property holdings.
In 1868, following their unsuccessful participation in the League of Peace and Freedom (LPF), Russian revolutionary Mikhail Bakunin and his collectivist anarchist associates joined the First International (which had decided not to get involved with the LPF). They allied themselves with the federalist socialist sections of the International, who advocated the revolutionary overthrow of the state and the collectivization of property.
At first, the collectivists worked with the Marxists to push the First International in a more revolutionary socialist direction. Subsequently, the International became polarised into two camps, with Marx and Bakunin as their respective figureheads. Bakunin characterised Marx 's ideas as centralist and predicted that, if a Marxist party came to power, its leaders would simply take the place of the ruling class they had fought against.
Anarchist historian George Woodcock reports that "The annual Congress of the International had not taken place in 1870 owing to the outbreak of the Paris Commune, and in 1871 the General Council called only a special conference in London. One delegate was able to attend from Spain and none from Italy, while a technical excuse - that they had split away from the Fédération Romande - was used to avoid inviting Bakunin 's Swiss supporters. Thus only a tiny minority of anarchists was present, and the General Council 's resolutions passed almost unanimously. Most of them were clearly directed against Bakunin and his followers. " In 1872, the conflict climaxed with a final split between the two groups at the Hague Congress , where Bakunin and James Guillaume were expelled from the International and its headquarters were transferred to New York. In response, the federalist sections formed their own International at the St. Imier Congress , adopting a revolutionary anarchist program. Graham, Robert '(Montreal: Black Rose Books 2005) ISBN 1-55164-251-4.
The Paris Commune was a government that briefly ruled Paris from 18 March (more formally, from 28 March) to 28 May 1871. The Commune was the result of an uprising in Paris after France was defeated in the Franco-Prussian War. Anarchists participated actively in the establishment of the Paris Commune. They included " Louise Michel , the Reclus brothers , and Eugene Varlin (the latter murdered in the repression afterwards). As for the reforms initiated by the Commune, such as the re-opening of workplaces as co-operatives, anarchists can see their ideas of associated labour beginning to be realised...Moreover, the Commune 's ideas on federation obviously reflected the influence of Proudhon on French radical ideas. Indeed, the Commune 's vision of a communal France based on a federation of delegates bound by imperative mandates issued by their electors and subject to recall at any moment echoes Bakunin 's and Proudhon 's ideas (Proudhon, like Bakunin, had argued in favour of the "implementation of the binding mandate " in 1848...and for federation of communes). Thus both economically and politically the Paris Commune was heavily influenced by anarchist ideas. ". George Woodcock manifests that "a notable contribution to the activities of the Commune and particularly to the organization of public services was made by members of various anarchist factions, including the mutualists Courbet, Longuet, and Vermorel, the libertarian collectivists Varlin, Malon, and Lefrangais, and the bakuninists Elie and Elisée Reclus and Louise Michel. "
Organized labor less
The anti-authoritarian sections of the First International were the precursors of the anarcho-syndicalists, seeking to "replace the privilege and authority of the State " with the "free and spontaneous organization of labor. " Resolutions from the St. Imier Congress, in Anarchism: A Documentary History of Libertarian Ideas , Vol. 1, p. 100 In 1886, the Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Unions (FOTLU) of the United States and Canada unanimously set 1 May 1886, as the date by which the eight-hour work day would become standard.
In response, unions across the United States prepared a general strike in support of the event. On 3 May, in Chicago, a fight broke out when strikebreaker s attempted to cross the picket line, and two workers died when police opened fire upon the crowd. The next day, 4 May, anarchists staged a rally at Chicago 's Haymarket Square. A bomb was thrown by an unknown party near the conclusion of the rally, killing an officer. In the ensuing panic, police opened fire on the crowd and each other. Chicago Tribune , 27 June 1886, quoted in Seven police officers and at least four workers were killed. Eight anarchists directly and indirectly related to the organisers of the rally were arrested and charged with the murder of the deceased officer. The men became international political celebrities among the labour movement. Four of the men were executed and a fifth committed suicide prior to his own execution. The incident became known as the Haymarket affair , and was a setback for the labour movement and the struggle for the eight hour day. In 1890 a second attempt, this time international in scope, to organise for the eight hour day was made. The event also had the secondary purpose of memorializing workers killed as a result of the Haymarket affair. Although it had initially been conceived as a once-off event, by the following year the celebration of International Workers 'Day on May Day had become firmly established as an international worker 's holiday.
In 1907, the International Anarchist Congress of Amsterdam gathered delegates from 14 different countries, among which important figures of the anarchist movement, including Errico Malatesta , Pierre Monatte , Luigi Fabbri , Benoît Broutchoux , Emma Goldman , Rudolf Rocker , and Christiaan Cornelissen . Various themes were treated during the Congress, in particular concerning the organisation of the anarchist movement, popular education issues, the general strike or antimilitarism . A central debate concerned the relation between anarchism and syndicalism (or trade union ism). Malatesta and Monatte were in particular disagreement themselves on this issue, as the latter thought that syndicalism was revolutionary and would create the conditions of a social revolution , while Malatesta did not consider syndicalism by itself sufficient. He thought that the trade-union movement was reformist and even conservative , citing as essentially bourgeois and anti-worker the phenomenon of professional union officials. Malatesta warned that the syndicalists aims were in perpetuating syndicalism itself, whereas anarchists must always have anarchy as their end and consequently refrain from committing to any particular method of achieving it.
The Spanish Workers Federation in 1881 was the first major anarcho-syndicalist movement; anarchist trade union federations were of special importance in Spain. The most successful was the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (National Confederation of Labour: CNT), founded in 1910. Before the 1940s, the CNT was the major force in Spanish working class politics, attracting 1.58 million members at one point and playing a major role in the Spanish Civil War . The CNT was affiliated with the International Workers Association , a federation of anarcho-syndicalist trade unions founded in 1922, with delegates representing two million workers from 15 countries in Europe and Latin America. In Latin America in particular "The anarchists quickly became active in organizing craft and industrial workers throughout South and Central America, and until the early 1920s most of the trade unions in Mexico , Brazil , Peru, Chile, and Argentina were anarcho-syndicalist in general outlook; the prestige of the Spanish C.N.T. as a revolutionary organization was
undoubtedly to a great extent responsible for this situation. The largest and most militant of these organizations was the Federación Obrera Regional Argentina ...it grew quickly
to a membership of nearly a quarter of a million, which dwarfed the rival socialdemocratic unions. "
Propaganda of the deed and illegalism less
Some anarchists, such as Johann Most , advocated publicizing violent acts of retaliation against counter-revolutionaries because "we preach not only action in and for itself, but also action as propaganda. " By the 1880s, people inside and outside the anarchist movement began to use the slogan, "propaganda of the deed " to refer to individual bombings, regicide s, and tyrannicide s. From 1905 onwards, the Russian counterparts of these anti-syndicalist anarchist-communists become partisans of economic terrorism and illegal ‘ expropriations ’. " Illegalism as a practice emerged and within it "The acts of the anarchist bombers and assassins ( " propaganda by the deed ") and the anarchist burglars ( " individual reappropriation ") expressed their desperation and their personal, violent rejection of an intolerable society. Moreover, they were clearly meant to be exemplary invitations to revolt. ". France 's Bonnot Gang was the most famous group to embrace illegalism.
However, as soon as 1887, important figures in the anarchist movement distanced themselves from such individual acts. Peter Kropotkin thus wrote that year in Le Révolté that "a structure based on centuries of history cannot be destroyed with a few kilos of dynamite ". quoted in Billington, James H. 1998. Fire in the minds of men: origins of the revolutionary faith New Jersey: Transaction Books, p 417. A variety of anarchists advocated the abandonment of these sorts of tactics in favor of collective revolutionary action, for example through the trade union movement. The anarcho-syndicalist , Fernand Pelloutier , argued in 1895 for renewed anarchist involvement in the labor movement on the basis that anarchism could do very well without "the individual dynamiter. "
State repression (including the infamous 1894 French lois scélérates ) of the anarchist and labor movement s following the few successful bombings and assassinations may have contributed to the abandonment of these kinds of tactics, although reciprocally state repression, in the first place, may have played a role in these isolated acts. The dismemberment of the French socialist movement , into many groups and, following the suppression of the 1871 Paris Commune , the execution and exile of many communards to penal colonies , favored individualist political expression and acts. Historian Benedict Anderson thus writes: "In March 1871 the Commune took power in the abandoned city and held it for two months. Then Versailles seized the moment to attack and, in one horrifying week, executed roughly 20,000 Communards or suspected sympathizers, a number higher than those killed in the recent war or during Robespierre 's 'Terror 'of 1793–1794. More than 7,500 were jailed or deported to places like New Caledonia. Thousands of others fled to Belgium, England, Italy, Spain and the United States. In 1872, stringent laws were passed that ruled out all possibilities of organizing on the left. Not till 1880 was there a general amnesty for exiled and imprisoned Communards. Meanwhile, the Third Republic found itself strong enough to renew and reinforce Louis Napoleon 's imperialist expansion– in Indochina, Africa, and Oceania. Many of France 's leading intellectuals and artists had participated in the Commune ( Courbet was its quasi-minister of culture, Rimbaud and Pissarro were active propagandists) or were sympathetic to it. The ferocious repression of 1871 and thereafter, was probably the key factor in alienating these milieux from the Third Republic and stirring their sympathy for its victims at home and abroad. " (in ) According to some analysts, in post-war Germany , the prohibition of the Communist Party (KDP) and thus of institutional far-left political organization may also, in the same manner, have played a role in the creation of the Red Army Faction .
Numerous heads of state were assassinated between 1881 and 1914 by members of the anarchist movement. For example, U.S. President McKinley 's assassin Leon Czolgosz claimed to have been influenced by anarchist and feminist Emma Goldman . Bombings were associated in the media with anarchists because international terrorism arose during this time period with the widespread distribution of dynamite. This image remains to this day.
Propaganda of the deed was abandoned by the vast majority of the anarchist movement after World War I (1914–1918) and the 1917 October Revolution .
Russian Revolution and other uprisings of the 1910s less
Anarchists participated alongside the Bolshevik s in both February and October revolutions , and were initially enthusiastic about the Bolshevik revolution. However, following a political falling out with the Bolsheviks by the anarchists and other left-wing opposition, the conflict culminated in the 1921 Kronstadt rebellion , which the new government repressed. Anarchists in central Russia were either imprisoned, driven underground or joined the victorious Bolsheviks; the anarchists from Petrograd and Moscow fled to the Ukraine . There, in the Free Territory , they fought in the civil war against the Whites (a grouping of monarchists and other opponents of the October Revolution) and then the Bolsheviks as part of the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine led by Nestor Makhno , who established an anarchist society in the region for a number of months.
Expelled American anarchists Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman were amongst those agitating in response to Bolshevik policy and the suppression of the Kronstadt uprising , before they left Russia. Both wrote accounts of their experiences in Russia, criticizing the amount of control the Bolsheviks exercised. For them, Bakunin 's predictions about the consequences of Marxist rule that the rulers of the new "socialist " Marxist state would become a new elite had proved all too true. " " in Bakunin on Anarchy , translated and edited by Sam Dolgoff, 1971.
The victory of the Bolsheviks in the October Revolution and the resulting Russian Civil War did serious damage to anarchist movements internationally. Many workers and activists saw Bolshevik success as setting an example; Communist parties grew at the expense of anarchism and other socialist movements. In France and the United States, for example, members of the major syndicalist movements of the CGT and IWW left the organizations and joined the Communist International .
The revolutionary wave of 1917–23 saw the active participation of anarchists in varying degrees of protagonism. In the German uprising known as the Bavarian Soviet Republic the anarchists Gustav Landauer , Silvio Gesell and Erich Mühsam had important leadership positions within the revolutionary councilist structures. "The Munich Soviet (or “Council Republic”) of 1919 exhibited certain features of the TAZ, even though — like most revolutions — its stated goals were not exactly “temporary.” Gustav Landauer 's participation as Minister of Culture along with Silvio Gesell as Minister of Economics and other anti-authoritarian and extreme libertarian socialists such as the poet /playwrights Erich Mühsam and Ernst Toller, and Ret Marut (the novelist B. Traven), gave the Soviet a distinct anarchist flavor. " Hakim Bey . In the Italian events known as the biennio rosso the anarcho-syndicalist trade union Unione Sindacale Italiana "grew to 800,000 members and the influence of the Italian Anarchist Union (20,000 members plus Umanita Nova , its daily paper) grew accordingly...Anarchists were the first to suggest occupying workplaces. on libcom.org In the Mexican Revolution the Mexican Liberal Party was established and during the early 1910s it lead a series of military offensives leading to the conquest and occupation of certain towns and districts in Baja California with the leadership of anarcho-communist Ricardo Flores Magón .
In Paris, the Dielo Truda group of Russian anarchist exiles, which included Nestor Makhno , concluded that anarchists needed to develop new forms of organisation in response to the structures of Bolshevism. Their 1926 manifesto, called the Organizational Platform of the General Union of Anarchists (Draft) , was supported. Platformist groups active today include the Workers Solidarity Movement in Ireland and the North Eastern Federation of Anarchist Communists of North America. Synthesis anarchism emerged as an organizational alternative to platformism that tries to join anarchists of different tendencies under the principles of anarchism without adjectives . In the 1920s this form found as its main proponents Volin and Sebastien Faure . It is the main principle behind the anarchist federations grouped around the contemporary global International of Anarchist Federations .
Conflicts with European fascist regimes less
In the 1920s and 1930s, the rise of fascism in Europe transformed anarchism 's conflict with the state. Italy saw the first struggles between anarchists and fascists. Italian anarchists played a key role in the anti-fascist organisation Arditi del Popolo , which was strongest in areas with anarchist traditions, and achieved some success in their activism, such as repelling Blackshirts in the anarchist stronghold of Parma in August 1922. Holbrow, Marnie, ( Socialist Review November 2002). The veteran Italian anarchist, Luigi Fabbri, was one of the first critical theorists of fascism, describing it as "the preventive counter-revolution. " In France, where the far right leagues came close to insurrection in the February 1934 riots , anarchists divided over a united front policy. Berry, David. "Fascism or Revolution. " Le Libertaire . August 1936.
Anarchists in France and Italy on libcom.org were active in the Resistance during World War II .
Spanish Revolution less
In Spain, the national anarcho-syndicalist trade union Confederación Nacional del Trabajo initially refused to join a popular front electoral alliance, and abstention by CNT supporters led to a right wing election victory. But in 1936, the CNT changed its policy and anarchist votes helped bring the popular front back to power. Months later, the former ruling class responded with an attempted coup causing the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939). In response to the army rebellion, an anarchist-inspired movement of peasants and workers, supported by armed militias, took control of Barcelona and of large areas of rural Spain where they collectivised the land. But even before the fascist victory in 1939, the anarchists were losing ground in a bitter struggle with the Stalinists , who controlled the distribution of military aid to the Republican cause from the Soviet Union . The events known as the Spanish Revolution was a workers 'social revolution that began during the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War in 1936 and resulted in the widespread implementation of anarchist and more broadly libertarian socialist organizational principles throughout various portions of the country for two to three years, primarily Catalonia , Aragon , Andalusia , and parts of the Levante . Much of Spain 's economy was put under worker control; in anarchist strongholds like Catalonia , the figure was as high as 75%, but lower in areas with heavy Communist Party of Spain influence, as the Soviet -allied party actively resisted attempts at collectivization enactment. Factories were run through worker committees, agrarian areas became collectivised and run as libertarian communes . Anarchist historian Sam Dolgoff estimated that about eight million people participated directly or at least indirectly in the Spanish Revolution, which he claimed "came closer to realizing the ideal of the free stateless society on a vast scale than any other revolution in history. " Dolgoff (1974), p. 5 Stalinist-led troops suppressed the collectives and persecuted both dissident Marxists and anarchists.
Post-war years less
Anarchism sought to reorganize itself after the war. The Mexican Anarchist Federation was established in 1945 after the Anarchist Federation of the Center united with the Anarchist Federation of the Federal District. In the early 1940s, the Antifascist International Solidarity and the Federation of Anarchist Groups of Cuba merged into the large national organization Asociación Libertaria de Cuba (Cuban Libertarian Association). "The surviving sectors of the revolutionary anarchist movement of the 1920-1940 period, now working in the SIA and the FGAC, reinforced by those Cuban militants and Spanish anarchists fleeing now-fascist Spain, agreed at the beginning of the decade to hold an assembly with the purpose of regrouping the libertarian forces inside a single organization. The guarantees of the 1940 Constitution permitted them to legally create an organization of this type, and it was thus that they agreed to dissolve the two principal Cuban anarchist organizations, the SIA and FGAC, and create a new, unified group, the Asociación Libertaria de Cuba (ALC), a sizable organization with a membership in the thousands. " From 1944 to 1947, the Bulgarian Anarchist Communist Federation reemerged as part of a factory and workplace committee movement, but was repressed by the new Communist regime. In 1945 in France the Fédération Anarchiste was established and the also synthesist Federazione Anarchica Italiana was founded in Italy . Korean anarchists formed the League of Free Social Constructors in September 1945 and in 1946 the Japanese Anarchist Federation was founded. An International Anarchist Congress with delegates from across Europe was held in Paris in May 1948. In 1956 the Uruguayan Anarchist Federation was founded. In 1955 the Anarcho-Communist Federation of Argentina renamed itself as the Argentine Libertarian Federation .
Anarchism continued to influence important literary and intellectual personalities of the time, such as Albert Camus , Herbert Read , Paul Goodman , Dwight Macdonald , Allen Ginsberg , George Woodcock , Julian Beck —and the French Surrealist group led by André Breton , which now openly embraced anarchism and collaborated in the Fédération Anarchiste . "It was in the black mirror of anarchism that surrealism first recognised itself, " wrote André Breton in "The Black Mirror of Anarchism, " Selection 23 in Robert Graham, ed., Anarchism: A Documentary History of Libertarian Ideas, Volume Two: The Emergence of the New Anarchism (1939-1977) . Breton had returned to France in 1947 and in April of that year Andre Julien welcomed his return in the pages of Le Libertaire the weekly paper of the Federation Anarchiste " on libcom.org
Anarcho-pacifism became influential in the Anti-nuclear movement and anti war movement s of the time "In the forties and fifties, anarchism, in fact if not in name, began to reappear, often in alliance with pacifism, as the basis for a critique of militarism on both sides of the Cold War. The anarchist /pacifist wing of the peace movement was small in comparison with the wing of the movement that emphasized electoral work, but made an important contribution to the movement as a whole. Where the more conventional wing of the peace movement rejected militarism and war under all but the most dire circumstances, the anarchist /pacifist wing rejected these on principle. " "In the 1950s and 1960s anarcho-pacifism began to gel, tough-minded anarchists adding to the mixture their critique of the state, and tender-minded pacifists their critique of violence. Its first practical manifestation was at the level of method: nonviolent direct action, principled and pragmatic, was used widely in both the Civil Rights movement in the USA and the campaign against nuclear weapons in Britain and elsewhere. " as can be seen in the activism and writings of the English anarchist member of Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament Alex Comfort or the similar activism of the American catholic anarcho-pacifist Ammon Hennacy . Anarcho-pacifism became a "basis for a critique of militarism on both sides of the Cold War . " The resurgence of anarchist ideas during this period is well documented in Robert Graham 's , Volume Two: The Emergence of the New Anarchism (1939-1977) .
Contemporary anarchism less
A surge of popular interest in anarchism occurred in western nations during the 1960s and 1970s. Anarchism was influential in the Counterculture of the 1960s "Farrell provides a detailed history of the Catholic Workers and their founders Dorothy Day and Peter Maurin. He explains that their pacifism, anarchism, and commitment to the downtrodden were one of the important models and inspirations for the 60s. As Farrell puts it, "Catholic Workers identified the issues of the sixties before the Sixties began, and they offered models of protest long before the protest decade. " "While not always formally recognized, much of the protest of the sixties was anarchist. Within the nascent women 's movement, anarchist principles became so widespread that a political science professor denounced what she saw as "The Tyranny of Structurelessness. " Several groups have called themselves "Amazon Anarchists. " After the Stonewall Rebellion , the New York Gay Liberation Front based their organization in part on a reading of Murray Bookchin 's anarchist writings. " . pg. 52 and anarchists actively participated in the late sixties students and workers revolts . "Within the movements of the sixties there was much more receptivity to anarchism-in-fact than had existed in the movements of the thirties...But the movements of the sixties were driven by concerns that were more compatible with an expressive style of politics, with hostility to authority in general and state power in particular...By the late sixties, political protest was intertwined with cultural radicalism based on a critique of all authority and all hierarchies of power. Anarchism circulated within the movement along with other radical ideologies. The influence of anarchism was strongest among radical feminists, in the commune movement, and probably in the Weather Underground and elsewhere in the violent fringe of the anti-war movement. " In 1968 in Carrara , Italy the International of Anarchist Federations was founded during an international anarchist conference held there in 1968 by the three existing European federations of France , the Italian and the Iberian Anarchist Federation as well as the Bulgaria n federation in French exile. International Institute of Social History. Retrieved 19 January 2010 A-infos news project. Retrieved 19 January 2010
In the United Kingdom in the 1970s this was associated with the punk rock movement, as exemplified by bands such as Crass and the Sex Pistols . The housing and employment crisis in most of Western Europe led to the formation of communes and squatter movements like that of Barcelona , Spain. In Denmark, squatter s occupied a disused military base and declared the Freetown Christiania , an autonomous haven in central Copenhagen.
Since the revival of anarchism in the mid 20th century,
a number of new movements and schools of thought emerged. Although feminist tendencies have always been a part of the anarchist movement in the form of anarcha-feminism , they returned with vigour during the second wave of feminism in the 1960s. The American Civil Rights Movement and the movement against the war in Vietnam also contributed to the revival of North American anarchism. European anarchism of the late 20th century drew much of its strength from the labour movement, and both have incorporated animal rights activism. Anarchist anthropologist David Graeber and anarchist historian Andrej Grubacic have posited a rupture between generations of anarchism, with those "who often still have not shaken the sectarian habits " of the 19th century contrasted with the younger activists who are "much more informed, among other elements, by indigenous , feminist , ecological and cultural-critical ideas ", and who by the turn of the 21st century formed "by far the majority " of anarchists. David Graeber and Andrej Grubacic , " ", ZNet . Retrieved 2007-12-13. or
Around the turn of the 21st century, anarchism grew in popularity and influence as part of the anti-war, anti-capitalist, and anti-globalisation movement s. Anarchists became known for their involvement in protests against the meetings of the World Trade Organization (WTO), Group of Eight , and the World Economic Forum . Some anarchist factions at these protests engaged in rioting, property destruction, and violent confrontations with police. These actions were precipitated by ad hoc, leaderless, anonymous cadres known as black bloc s ; other organisational tactics pioneered in this time include security culture , affinity groups and the use of decentralised technologies such as the internet. A significant event of this period was the confrontations at WTO conference in Seattle in 1999 .
International anarchist federations in existence include the International of Anarchist Federations , the International Workers 'Association , and International Libertarian Solidarity .
The largest organised anarchist movement today is in Spain, in the form of the Confederación General del Trabajo (CGT) and the CNT . CGT membership was estimated at around 100,000 for 2003. Carley, Mark "Trade union membership 1993–2003 " (International:SPIRE Associates 2004). Other active syndicalist movements include in Sweden the Central Organisation of the Workers of Sweden and the Swedish Anarcho-syndicalist Youth Federation ; the CNT-AIT in France; the Union Sindicale Italiana in Italy; in the US Workers Solidarity Alliance and the UK Solidarity Federation . The revolutionary industrial unionist Industrial Workers of the World , claiming 2,000 paying members, and the International Workers Association , an anarcho-syndicalist successor to the First International, also remain active.
Anarchist schools of thought less
Anarchist schools of thought had been generally grouped in two main historical traditions, individualist anarchism and social anarchism , which have some different origins, values and evolution. , (1908). The individualist wing of anarchism emphasises negative liberty , i.e. opposition to state or social control over the individual, while those in the social wing emphasise positive liberty to achieve one 's potential and argue that humans have needs that society ought to fulfill, "recognizing equality of entitlement ". Harrison, Kevin and Boyd, Tony. Understanding Political Ideas and Movements . Manchester University Press 2003, p. 251. In a chronological and theoretical sense, there are classical — those created throughout the 19th century — and post-classical anarchist schools — those created since the mid-20th century and after.
Beyond the specific factions of anarchist thought is philosophical anarchism , which embodies the theoretical stance that the state lacks moral legitimacy without accepting the imperative of revolution to eliminate it. A component especially of individualist anarchism Outhwaite, William & Tourain, Alain (Eds.). (2003). Anarchism. The Blackwell Dictionary of Modern Social Thought (2nd Edition, p. 12). Blackwell Publishing. Wayne Gabardi, of Anarchism by David Miller, published in American Political Science Review Vol. 80, No. 1. (Mar., 1986), pp. 300-302. philosophical anarchism may accept the existence of a minimal state as unfortunate, and usually temporary, "necessary evil " but argue that citizens do not have a moral obligation to obey the state when its laws conflict with individual autonomy. Klosko, George. Political Obligations . Oxford University Press 2005. p. 4. One reaction against sectarianism within the anarchist milieu was " anarchism without adjectives ", a call for toleration first adopted by Fernando Tarrida del Mármol in 1889 in response to the "bitter debates " of anarchist theory at the time. Avrich, Paul. . Princeton University Press, 1996, p. 6. In abandoning the hyphenated anarchisms (i.e. collectivist-, communist-, mutualist- and individualist-anarchism), it sought to emphasise the anti-authoritarian beliefs common to all anarchist schools of thought. Esenwein, George Richard "Anarchist Ideology and the Working Class Movement in Spain, 1868–1898 " p. 135 .
Classical anarchist schools of thought less
Mutualism began in 18th century English and French labour movements before taking an anarchist form associated with Pierre-Joseph Proudhon in France and others in the United States. "A member of a community, " The Mutualist ; this 1826 series criticised Robert Owen 's proposals, and has been attributed to a dissident Owenite, possibly from the Friendly Association for Mutual Interests of Valley Forge; Wilbur, Shawn , 2006, "More from the 1826 "Mutualist "? ". Proudhon proposed spontaneous order , whereby organization emerges without central authority, a "positive anarchy " where order arises when everybody does "what he wishes and only what he wishes " Proudhon, Solution to the Social Problem , ed. H. Cohen (New York: Vanguard Press, 1927), p. 45. and where "business transactions alone produce the social order. " It is important to recognize that Proudhon distinguished between ideal political possibilities and practical governance. For this reason, much in contrast to some of his theoretical statements concerning ultimate spontaneous self-governance, Proudhon was heavily involved in French parliamentary politics and allied himself not with Anarchist but Socialist factions of workers movements and, in addition to advocating state-protected charters for worker-owned cooperatives, promoted certain nationalization schemes during his life of public service.
Mutualist anarchism is concerned with reciprocity , free association, voluntary contract, federation, and credit and currency reform. According to William Batchelder Greene, each worker in the mutualist system would receive "just and exact pay for his work; services equivalent in cost being exchangeable for services equivalent in cost, without profit or discount. " "Communism versus Mutualism ", Socialistic, Communistic, Mutualistic and Financial Fragments . (Boston: Lee & Shepard, 1875) William Batchelder Greene : "Under the mutual system, each individual will receive the just and exact pay for his work; services equivalent in cost being exchangeable for services equivalent in cost, without profit or discount; and so much as the individual laborer will then get over and above what he has earned will come to him as his share in the general prosperity of the community of which he is an individual member. " Mutualism has been retrospectively characterised as ideologically situated between individualist and collectivist forms of anarchism. Avrich, Paul. Anarchist Voices: An Oral History of Anarchism in America , Princeton University Press 1996 ISBN 0-691-04494-5, p.6 Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Political Thought , Blackwell Publishing 1991 ISBN 0-631-17944-5, p. 11. Proudhon first characterised his goal as a "third form of society, the synthesis of communism and property. " Pierre-Joseph Proudhon. What Is Property? Princeton, MA: Benjamin R. Tucker, 1876. p. 281.
Individualist anarchism less
Individualist anarchism refers to several traditions of thought within the anarchist movement that emphasize the individual and their will over any kinds of external determinants such as groups, society, traditions, and ideological systems. "What do I mean by individualism?
I mean by individualism the moral doctrine which, relying on no dogma, no tradition, no external determination, appeals only to the individual conscience. " "I do not admit anything except the existence of the individual, as a condition of his sovereignty. To say that the sovereignty of the individual is conditioned by Liberty is simply another way of saying that it is conditioned by itself. " "Anarchism and the State " in Individual Liberty Individualist anarchism is not a single philosophy but refers to a group of individualistic philosophies that sometimes are in conflict.
In 1793, William Godwin , who has often Everhart, Robert B. The Public School Monopoly: A Critical Analysis of Education and the State in American Society. Pacific Institute for Public Policy Research, 1982. p. 115. been cited as the first anarchist, wrote Political Justice , which some consider the first expression of anarchism. Adams, Ian. Political Ideology Today. Manchester University Press, 2001. p. 116. Godwin, a philosophical anarchist, from a rationalist and utilitarian basis opposed revolutionary action and saw a minimal state as a present "necessary evil " that would become increasingly irrelevant and powerless by the gradual spread of knowledge. Godwin advocated individualism , proposing that all cooperation in labour be eliminated on the premise that this would be most conducive with the general good. Britannica Concise Encyclopedia . Retrieved 7 December 2006, from . Paul McLaughlin. Anarchism and Authority: A Philosophical Introduction to Classical Anarchism. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2007. p. 119.
An influential form of individualist anarchism, called "egoism, " Goodway, David. Anarchist Seeds Beneath the Snow. Liverpool University Press, 2006, p. 99. or egoist anarchism , was expounded by one of the earliest and best-known proponents of individualist anarchism, the German Max Stirner . Stirner 's The Ego and Its Own , published in 1844, is a founding text of the philosophy. According to Stirner, the only limitation on the rights of the individual is their power to obtain what they desire, The Encyclopedia Americana: A Library of Universal Knowledge. Encyclopedia Corporation. p. 176. without regard for God, state, or morality. Miller, David. "Anarchism. " 1987. The Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Political Thought . Blackwell Publishing. p. 11. To Stirner, rights were spooks in the mind, and he held that society does not exist but "the individuals are its reality ". "What my might reaches is my property; and let me claim as property everything I feel myself strong enough to attain, and let me extend my actual property as fas as I entitle, that is, empower myself to take... " In Ossar, Michael. 1980. Anarchism in the Dramas of Ernst Toller . SUNY Press. p. 27. Stirner advocated self-assertion and foresaw unions of egoists , non-systematic associations continually renewed by all parties 'support through an act of will, which Stirner proposed as a form of organization in place of the state . Egoist anarchists argue that egoism will foster genuine and spontaneous union between individuals. "Egoism " has inspired many interpretations of Stirner 's philosophy. It was re-discovered and promoted by German philosophical anarchist and LGBT activist John Henry Mackay .
Josiah Warren is widely regarded as the first American anarchist , Palmer, Brian (2010-12-29) , Slate.com and the four-page weekly paper he edited during 1833, The Peaceful Revolutionist , was the first anarchist periodical published. William Bailie, Josiah Warren: The First American Anarchist — A Sociological Study , Boston: Small, Maynard & Co., 1906, p. 20 For American anarchist historian Eunice Minette Schuster "It is apparent...that Proudhon ian Anarchism was to be found in the United States at least as early as 1848 and that it was not conscious of its affinity to the Individualist Anarchism of Josiah Warren and Stephen Pearl Andrews ... William B. Greene presented this Proudhonian Mutualism in its purest and most systematic form. ". Henry David Thoreau (1817–1862) was an important early influence in individualist anarchist thought in the United States and Europe. Thoreau was an American author, poet, naturalist, tax resister, development critic , surveyor, historian, philosopher, and leading transcendentalist . He is best known for his books Walden , a reflection upon simple living in natural surroundings, and his essay, Civil Disobedience , an argument for individual resistance to civil government in moral opposition to an unjust state. Later Benjamin Tucker fused Stirner 's egoism with the economics of Warren and Proudhon in his eclectic influential publication Liberty .
From these early influences individualist anarchism in different countries attracted a small but diverse following of bohemian artists and intellectuals, on libcom.org free love and birth control advocates (see Anarchism and issues related to love and sex ), individualist naturist s nudist s (see anarcho-naturism ), "Los anarco-individualistas, G.I.A...Una escisión de la FAI producida en el IX Congreso (Carrara, 1965) se produjo cuando un sector de anarquistas de tendencia humanista rechazan la interpretación que ellos juzgan disciplinaria del pacto asociativo "clásico, y crean los GIA (Gruppi di Iniziativa Anarchica) . Esta pequeña federación de grupos, hoy nutrida sobre todo de veteranos anarco-individualistas de orientación pacifista, naturista, etcétera defiende la autonomía personal y rechaza a rajatabla toda forma de intervención en los procesos del sistema, como sería por ejemplo el sindicalismo. Su portavoz es L 'Internazionale con sede en Ancona. La escisión de los GIA prefiguraba, en sentido contrario, el gran debate que pronto había de comenzar en el seno del movimiento ""Proliferarán así diversos grupos que practicarán el excursionismo, el naturismo, el nudismo, la emancipación sexual o el esperantismo, alrededor de asociaciones informales vinculadas de una manera o de otra al anarquismo. Precisamente las limitaciones a las asociaciones obreras impuestas desde la legislación especial de la Dictadura potenciarán indirectamente esta especie de asociacionismo informal en que confluirá el movimiento anarquista con esta heterogeneidad de prácticas y tendencias. Uno de los grupos más destacados, que será el impulsor de la revista individualista Ética será el Ateneo Naturista Ecléctico, con sede en Barcelona, con sus diferentes secciones la más destacada de las cuales será el grupo excursionista Sol y Vida. " "Les anarchistes individualistes du début du siècle l 'avaient bien compris, et intégraient le naturisme dans leurs préoccupations. Il est vraiment dommage que ce discours se soit peu à peu effacé, d 'antan plus que nous assistons, en ce moment, à un retour en force du puritanisme (conservateur par essence). " freethought and anti-clearical activists as well as young anarchist outlaws in what became known as illegalism and individual reclamation , by Doug Imrie (published by ) Parry, Richard. The Bonnot Gang. Rebel Press, 1987. p. 15 (see European individualist anarchism and individualist anarchism in France ). These authors and activists included Oscar Wilde , Emile Armand , Han Ryner , Henri Zisly , Renzo Novatore , Miguel Gimenez Igualada , Adolf Brand and Lev Chernyi among others.
Social anarchism less
Social anarchism calls for a system with public ownership of means of production and democratic control of all organizations, without any government authority or coercion . It is the largest school of thought in anarchism. "This does not mean that the majority thread within the anarchist movement is uncritical of individualist anarchism. Far from it !Social anarchists have argued that this influence of non-anarchist ideas means that while its "criticism of the State is very searching, and its defence of the rights of the individual very powerful, " like Spencer it "opens . . . the way for reconstituting under the heading of 'defence 'all the functions of the State. " Social anarchism rejects private property, seeing it as a source of social inequality, and emphasises cooperation and mutual aid . Ostergaard, Geoffrey . "Anarchism ". A Dictionary of Marxist Thought. Blackwell Publishing, 1991. p. 21.
Collectivist anarchism less
Collectivist anarchism, also referred to as "revolutionary socialism " or a form of such, Morris, Brian. Bakunin: The Philosophy of Freedom. Black Rose Books Ltd., 1993. p. 76. Rae, John. Contemporary Socialism. C. Scribner 's sons, 1901, Original from Harvard University. p. 261. is a revolutionary form of anarchism, commonly associated with Mikhail Bakunin and Johann Most . Patsouras, Louis. 2005. Marx in Context. iUniverse. p. 54. Avrich, Paul. 2006. Anarchist Voices: An Oral History of Anarchism in America . AK Press . p. 5. Collectivist anarchists oppose all private ownership of the means of production, instead advocating that ownership be collectivised. This was to be achieved through violent revolution, first starting with a small cohesive group through acts of violence, or propaganda by the deed , which would inspire the workers as a whole to revolt and forcibly collectivise the means of production.
However, collectivization was not to be extended to the distribution of income, as workers would be paid according to time worked, rather than receiving goods being distributed "according to need " as in anarcho-communism. This position was criticised by anarchist communists as effectively "uphold ing the wages system ". Collectivist anarchism arose contemporaneously with Marxism but opposed the Marxist dictatorship of the proletariat , despite the stated Marxist goal of a collectivist stateless society. Anarchist, communist and collectivist ideas are not mutually exclusive ; although the collectivist anarchists advocated compensation for labour, some held out the possibility of a post-revolutionary transition to a communist system of distribution according to need.
Anarchist communism (also known as anarcho-communism, libertarian communism "Anarchist communism is also known as anarcho-communism, communist anarchism, or, sometimes, libertarian communism. " by Libcom.org "The terms libertarian communism and anarchist communism thus became synonymous within the international anarchist movement as a result of the close connection they had in Spain (with libertarian communism becoming the prevalent term). " , on libcom.org "The 'Manifesto of Libertarian Communism 'was written in 1953 by Georges Fontenis for the Federation Communiste Libertaire of France. It is one of the key texts of the anarchist-communist current. " on libcom.org "In 1926 a group of exiled Russian anarchists in France, the Delo Truda (Workers 'Cause) group, published this pamphlet. It arose not from some academic study but from their experiences in the 1917 Russian revolution. " and occasionally as free communism) is a theory of anarchism that advocates abolition of the state , markets , money , private property (while retaining respect for personal property ), "The revolution abolishes private ownership of the means of production and distribution, and with it goes capitalistic business. Personal possession remains only in the things you use. Thus, your watch is your own, but the watch factory belongs to the people. " and capitalism in favor of common ownership of the means of production , direct democracy and a horizontal network of voluntary association s and workers 'council s with production and consumption based on the guiding principle: " from each according to his ability, to each according to his need ". Fabbri, Luigi. "Anarchism and Communism. " Northeastern Anarchist #4. 1922. 13 October 2002. http: //dwardmac.pitzer.edu /anarchist_archives /worldwidemovements /fabbrianarandcom.html Makhno, Mett, Arshinov, Valevski, Linski (Dielo Trouda). "The Organizational Platform of the Libertarian Communists ". 1926. Constructive Section: available here http: //www.nestormakhno.info /english /platform /constructive.htm
Some forms of anarchist communism such as insurrectionary anarchism are strongly influenced by egoism and radical individualism , believing anarcho-communism is the best social system for the realization of individual freedom. Post-left anarcho-communist Bob Black after analysing insurrectionary anarcho-communist Luigi Galleani 's view on anarcho-communism went as far as saying that "communism is the final fulfillment of individualism ...The apparent contradiction between individualism and communism rests on a misunderstanding of both...Subjectivity is also objective: the individual really is subjective. It is nonsense to speak of “emphatically prioritizing the social over the individual,”...You may as well speak of prioritizing the chicken over the egg. Anarchy is a “method of individualization.” It aims to combine the greatest individual development with the greatest communal unity. " Christopher Gray, Leaving the Twentieth Century , p. 88. Most anarcho-communists view anarcho-communism as a way of reconciling the opposition between the individual and society. "Communism is the one which guarantees the greatest amount of individual liberty — provided that the idea that begets the community be Liberty, Anarchy...Communism guarantees economic freedom better than any other form of association, because it can guarantee wellbeing, even luxury, in return for a few hours of work instead of a day 's work. " This other society will be libertarian communism, in which social solidarity and free individuality find their full expression, and in which these two ideas develop in perfect harmony.
"I see the dichotomies made between individualism and communism, individual revolt and class struggle, the struggle against human exploitation and the exploitation of nature as false dichotomies and feel that those who accept them are impoverishing their own critique and struggle. "
Anarcho-communism developed out of radical socialist currents after the French revolution Robert Graham, Anarchism - A Documentary History of Libertarian Ideas - Volume One: From Anarchy to Anarchism (300CE to 1939) , Black Rose Books, 2005 but was first formulated as such in the Italian section of the First International . Nunzio Pernicone, "Italian Anarchism 1864 - 1892 ", pp. 111-113, AK Press 2009. The theoretical work of Peter Kropotkin took importance later as it expanded and developed pro-organizationalist and insurrectionary anti-organizationalist sections. To date, the best known examples of an anarchist communist society (i.e., established around the ideas as they exist today and achieving worldwide attention and knowledge in the historical canon), are the anarchist territories during the Spanish Revolution "This process of education and class organization, more than any single factor in Spain, produced the collectives. And to the degree that the CNT-FAI (for the two organizations became fatally coupled after July 1936) exercised the major influence in an area, the collectives proved to be generally more durable, communist and resistant to Stalinist counterrevolution than other republican-held areas of Spain. " and the Free Territory during the Russian Revolution . Through the efforts and influence of the Spanish Anarchists during the Spanish Revolution within the Spanish Civil War , starting in 1936 anarchist communism existed in most of Aragon, parts of the Levante and Andalusia, as well as in the stronghold of Anarchist Catalonia before being crushed by the combined forces of the regime that won the war , Hitler , Mussolini, Spanish Communist Party repression (backed by the USSR) as well as economic and armaments blockades from the capitalist countries and the Spanish Republic itself. During the Russian Revolution, anarchists such as Nestor Makhno worked to create and defend—through the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine —anarchist communism in the Free Territory of the Ukraine from 1919 before being conquered by the Bolsheviks in 1921.
Anarcho-syndicalism is a branch of anarchism that focuses on the labor movement . Sorel, Georges. 'Political Theorists in Context 'Routledge (2004) p. 248 Anarcho-syndicalists view labor unions as a potential force for revolution ary social change, replacing capitalism and the state with a new society democratically self-managed by workers. The basic principles of anarcho-syndicalism are: Workers ', Direct action and Workers 'self-management
Anarcho-syndicalists believe that only direct action —that is, action concentrated on directly attaining a goal, as opposed to indirect action, such as electing a representative to a government position—will allow workers to liberate themselves. Rocker, Rudolf. 'Anarcho-Syndicalism: Theory and Practice 'AK Press (2004) p. 73 Moreover, anarcho-syndicalists believe that workers 'organizations (the organizations that struggle against the wage system, which, in anarcho-syndicalist theory, will eventually form the basis of a new society) should be self-managing. They should not have bosses or "business agents "; rather, the workers should be able to make all the decisions that affect them themselves. Rudolf Rocker was one of the most popular voices in the anarcho-syndicalist movement. He outlined a view of the origins of the movement, what it sought, and why it was important to the future of labor in his 1938 pamphlet Anarcho-Syndicalism .The International Workers Association is an international anarcho-syndicalist federation of various labor unions from different countries. The Spanish Confederación Nacional del Trabajo played and still plays a major role in the Spanish labor movement . It was also an important force in the Spanish Civil War .
Post-classical schools of thought less
Anarchism continues to generate many philosophies and movements, at times eclectic, drawing upon various sources, and syncretic , combining disparate and contrary concepts to create new philosophical approaches. Perlin, Terry M. . Transaction Books, New Brunswick, NJ 1979 Platformism is a tendency within the wider anarchist movement based on the organisational theories in the tradition of Dielo Truda 's Organizational Platform of the General Union of Anarchists (Draft) . The document was based on the experiences of Russian anarchists in the 1917 October Revolution , which led eventually to the victory of the Bolsheviks over the anarchists and other groups. The Platform attempted to address and explain the anarchist movement 's failures during the Russian Revolution . Synthesis anarchism is a form of anarchist organization that tries to join anarchists of different tendencies under the principles of anarchism without adjectives . In the 1920s this form found as its main proponents the anarcho-communists Voline and Sébastien Faure . "The remedy has been found: libertarian communism. " It is the main principle behind the anarchist federations grouped around the contemporary global International of Anarchist Federations .
Anarcho-capitalism developed from radical anti-state libertarianism and individualist anarchism , drawing from Austrian School economics, study of law and economics , and public choice theory . Edward Stringham, , Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar, 2005. Anarcha-feminism developed as a synthesis of radical feminism and anarchism that views patriarchy (male domination over women) as a fundamental manifestation of compulsory government. It was inspired by the late 19th century writings of early feminist anarchists such as Lucy Parsons , Emma Goldman , Voltairine de Cleyre , and Dora Marsden . Anarcha-feminists, like other radical feminists, criticise and advocate the abolition of traditional conceptions of family, education and gender role s. Green anarchism (or eco-anarchism) David Pepper (1996). p. 44. Routledge. is a school of thought within anarchism that emphasizes environmental issues, Ian Adams (2001). p. 130. Manchester University Press. with an important precedent in anarcho-naturism "Anarchism and the different Naturist views have always been related. " and whose main contemporary currents are anarcho-primitivism and social ecology . Anarcho-pacifism is a tendency that rejects violence in the struggle for social change (see non-violence ). It developed "mostly in the Netherlands , Britain , and the United States , before and during the Second World War ". Christian anarchism is a movement in political theology that combines anarchism and Christianity . Its main proponents included Leo Tolstoy , Dorothy Day , Ammon Hennacy , and Jacques Ellul .
Post-left anarchy is a tendency that seeks to distance itself from traditional left-wing politics and to escape the confines of ideology in general. Post-anarchism is a theoretical move towards a synthesis of classical anarchist theory and poststructuralist thought drawing from diverse ideas including post-modernism , autonomist marxism , post-left anarchy , situationism and postcolonialism . Another recent form of anarchism critical of formal anarchist movements is insurrectionary anarchism , which advocates informal organization and active resistance to the state; its proponents include Wolfi Landstreicher and Alfredo M. Bonanno .
Internal issues and debates less
Anarchism is a philosophy that embodies many diverse attitudes, tendencies and schools of thought; as such, disagreement over questions of values, ideology and tactics is common. The compatibility of capitalism , "Anarchism. " The Oxford Companion to Philosophy , Oxford University Press , 2007, p. 31. nationalism and religion with anarchism is widely disputed. Similarly, anarchism enjoys complex relationships with ideologies such as Marxism , communism and capitalism . Anarchists may be motivated by humanism , divine authority , enlightened self-interest , veganism or any number of alternative ethical doctrines.
Phenomena such as civilization , technology (e.g. within anarcho-primitivism and insurrectionary anarchism ), and the democratic process may be sharply criticized within some anarchist tendencies and simultaneously lauded in others.
On a tactical level, while propaganda of the deed was a tactic used by anarchists in the 19th century (e.g. the Nihilist movement ), some contemporary anarchists espouse alternative direct action methods such as nonviolence , counter-economics and anti-state cryptography to bring about an anarchist society. About the scope of an anarchist society, some anarchists advocate a global one, while others do so by local ones. Ted Honderich, Carmen García Trevijano, . The diversity in anarchism has led to widely different use of identical terms among different anarchist traditions, which has led to many definitional concerns in anarchist theory .
Topics of interest less
Intersecting and overlapping between various schools of thought, certain topics of interest and internal disputes have proven perennial within anarchist theory.
Free love less
An important current within anarchism is free love . Free love advocates sometimes traced their roots back to Josiah Warren and to experimental communities, viewed sexual freedom as a clear, direct expression of an individual 's self-ownership. Free love particularly stressed women 's rights since most sexual laws discriminated against women: for example, marriage laws and anti-birth control measures. The most important American free love journal was Lucifer the Lightbearer (1883–1907) edited by Moses Harman and Lois Waisbrooker , Joanne E. Passet, "Power through Print: Lois Waisbrooker and Grassroots Feminism, " in: Women in Print: Essays on the Print Culture of American Women from the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries , James Philip Danky and Wayne A. Wiegand, eds., Madison, WI, University of Wisconsin Press, 2006; pp. 229–250. but also there existed Ezra Heywood and Angela Heywood 's The Word (1872–1890, 1892–1893). Free Society (1895-1897 as The Firebrand ; 1897-1904 as Free Society ) was a major anarchist newspaper in the United States at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries. " Free Society was the principal English-language forum for anarchist ideas in the United States at the beginning of the twentieth century. " Emma Goldman: Making Speech Free, 1902-1909 , p.551. The publication advocated free love and women 's rights , and critiqued " Comstockery "—censorship of sexual information. Also M. E. Lazarus was an important American individualist anarchist who promoted free love.
In New York City 's Greenwich Village , bohemian feminists and socialists advocated self-realisation and pleasure for women (and also men) in the here and now. They encouraged playing with sexual roles and sexuality, Sochen, June. 1972. The New Woman: Feminism in Greenwich Village 1910–1920. New York: Quadrangle. and the openly bisexual radical Edna St. Vincent Millay and the lesbian anarchist Margaret Anderson were prominent among them. Discussion groups organised by the Villagers were frequented by Emma Goldman , among others. Magnus Hirschfeld noted in 1923 that Goldman "has campaigned boldly and steadfastly for individual rights, and especially for those deprived of their rights. Thus it came about that she was the first and only woman, indeed the first and only American, to take up the defense of homosexual love before the general public. " Katz, Jonathan Ned. Gay American History: Lesbians and Gay Men in the U.S.A. (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1976) In fact, before Goldman, heterosexual anarchist Robert Reitzel (1849–1898) spoke positively of homosexuality from the beginning of the 1890s in his Detroit-based German language journal Der arme Teufel . In Argentina anarcha-feminist Virginia Bolten published the newspaper called ( en :The Woman 's Voice ), which was published nine times in Rosario between 8 January 1896 and 1 January 1897, and was revived, briefly, in 1901.
In Europe the main propagandist of free love within individualist anarchism was Emile Armand . He proposed the concept of la camaraderie amoureuse to speak of free love as the possibility of voluntary sexual encounter between consenting adults. He was also a consistent proponent of polyamory . In Germany the stirner ists Adolf Brand and John Henry Mackay were pioneering campaigners for the acceptance of male bisexuality and homosexuality .
More recently, the British anarcho-pacifist Alex Comfort gained notoriety during the sexual revolution for writing the bestseller sex manual The Joy of Sex . The issue of free love has a dedicated treatment in the work of French anarcho- hedonist philosopher Michel Onfray in such works as Théorie du corps amoureux : pour une érotique solaire (2000) and L 'invention du plaisir : fragments cyréaniques (2002).
Libertarian education and freethought less
For English anarchist William Godwin education was "the main means by which change would be achieved. " Godwin saw that the main goal of education should be the promotion of happiness For Godwin education had to have "A respect for the child’s autonomy which precluded any form of coercion, " "A pedagogy that respected this and sought to build on the child’s own motivation and initiatives, " and "A concern about the child’s capacity to resist an ideology transmitted through the school. " In his Political Justice he criticizes state sponsored schooling "on account of its obvious alliance with national government ". Early American anarchist Josiah Warren advanced alternative education experiences in the libertarian communities he established. "Where utopian projectors starting with Plato entertained the idea of creating an ideal species through eugenics and education and a set of universally valid institutions inculcating shared identities, Warren wanted to dissolve such identities in a solution of individual self-sovereignty. His educational experiments, for example, possibly under the influence of the Swiss educational theorist Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (via Owen ), emphasized - as we would expect - the nurturing of the independence and the conscience of individual children, not the inculcation of pre-conceived values. Max Stirner wrote in 1842 a long essay on education called The False Principle of our Education . In it Stirner names his educational principle "personalist, " explaining that self-understanding consists in hourly self-creation. Education for him is to create "free men, sovereign characters, " by which he means "eternal characters...who are therefore eternal because they form themselves each moment ".
In the United States "freethought was a basically anti-christian , anti-clerical movement, whose purpose was to make the individual politically and spiritually free to decide for himself on religious matters. A number of contributors to Liberty (anarchist publication) were prominent figures in both freethought and anarchism. The individualist anarchist George MacDonald was a co-editor of Freethought and, for a time, The Truth Seeker . E.C. Walker was co-editor of the excellent free-thought /free love journal Lucifer, the Light-Bearer ". "Many of the anarchists were ardent freethinkers; reprints from freethought papers such as Lucifer, the Light-Bearer , Freethought and The Truth Seeker appeared in Liberty ...The church was viewed as a common ally of the state and as a repressive force in and of itself ".
In 1901, Catalan anarchist and free-thinker Francesc Ferrer i Guàrdia established "modern " or progressive schools in Barcelona in defiance of an educational system controlled by the Catholic Church. The schools 'stated goal was to " educate the working class in a rational, secular and non-coercive setting ". Fiercely anti-clerical, Ferrer believed in "freedom in education ", education free from the authority of church and state. Murray Bookchin wrote: "This period 1890s was the heyday of libertarian schools and pedagogical projects in all areas of the country where Anarchists exercised some degree of influence. Perhaps the best-known effort in this field was Francisco Ferrer 's Modern School (Escuela Moderna), a project which exercised a considerable influence on Catalan education and on experimental techniques of teaching generally. " Chapter 7, Anarchosyndicalism , The New Ferment . In Murray Bookchin, The Spanish anarchists: the heroic years, 1868–1936 . AK Press, 1998, p.115. ISBN 1-873176-04-X La Escuela Moderna, and Ferrer 's ideas generally, formed the inspiration for a series of Modern Schools in the United States , Cuba , South America and London . The first of these was started in New York City in 1911. It also inspired the Italian newspaper Università popolare , founded in 1901. Russian christian anarchist Leo Tolstoy established a school for peasant children on his estate. Tolstoy 's educational experiments were short-lived due to harassment by the Tsarist secret police. Tolstoy established a conceptual difference between education and culture. He thought that "Education is the tendency of one man to make another just like himself... Education is culture under restraint, culture is free. Education is when the teaching is forced upon the pupil, and when then instruction is exclusive, that is when only those subjects are taught which the educator regards as necessary ". For him "without compulsion, education was transformed into culture ".
A more recent libertarian tradition on education is that of unschooling and the free school in which child-led activity replaces pedagogic approaches. Experiments in Germany led to A. S. Neill founding what became Summerhill School in 1921. Summerhill is often cited as an example of anarchism in practice. Andrew Vincent (2010) Modern Political Ideologies , 3rd edition, Oxford, Wiley-Blackwell p.129 However, although Summerhill and other free schools are radically libertarian, they differ in principle from those of Ferrer by not advocating an overtly political class struggle -approach.
In addition to organizing schools according to libertarian principles, anarchists have also questioned the concept of schooling per se. The term deschooling was popularized by Ivan Illich , who argued that the school as an institution is dysfunctional for self-determined learning and serves the creation of a consumer society instead.
Criticisms of anarchism include moral criticisms and pragmatic criticisms.
See also less
- Anarchist symbolism
- Lists of anarchism topics
- List of anarchist communities
- List of anarchist movements by region
- Outline of anarchism
Further reading less
- . Robert Graham, editor.
- Volume One: From Anarchy to Anarchism (300CE to 1939) Black Rose Books, Montréal and London 2005. ISBN 1-55164-250-6.
- Volume Two: The Anarchist Current (1939–2006) Black Rose Books, Montréal 2007. ISBN 978-1-55164-311-3.
- Anarchism , George Woodcock (Penguin Books, 1962). .
- Anarchy: A Graphic Guide , Clifford Harper (Camden Press, 1987): An overview, updating Woodcock 's classic, and illustrated throughout by Harper 's woodcut-style artwork.
- The Anarchist Reader , George Woodcock (ed.) (Fontana /Collins 1977; ISBN 0-00-634011-3): An anthology of writings from anarchist thinkers and activists including Proudhon , Kropotkin , Bakunin , Malatesta , Bookchin , Goldman , and many others.
- by Daniel Guerin . Monthly Review Press. 1970. ISBN 0-85345-175-3
- Anarchy through the times by Max Nettlau . Gordon Press. 1979. ISBN 0-8490-1397-6
- Demanding the Impossible: A History of Anarchism by Peter Marshall . PM Press. 2010. ISBN 1-60486-064-2
- People Without Government: An Anthropology of Anarchy (2nd ed.) by Harold Barclay , Left Bank Books, 1990 ISBN 1-871082-16-1
- The Political Theory of Anarchism by April Carter . Harper &Row. 1971. ISBN 978-0-06-136050-3
- Gordon, Uri. Anarchy Alive !London: Pluto Press , 2007.
External links less
- – An Anarchist FAQ
- –by Bryan Caplan
- – information relating to famous anarchists including their writings (see Anarchy Archives ).
- –700+ entries, with short biographies, links and dedicated pages
- –website of the Kate Sharpley Library , containing many historical documents pertaining to anarchism
- - the largest online collection of news and information about anarchism.
- large online library with texts from anarchist authors
- –anarchist virtual library containing 768 books, booklets and texts